Overview

This topic describes the management of the overall cluster network, including project isolation and outbound traffic control.

Pod-level networking features, such as per-pod bandwidth limits, are discussed in Managing Pods.

Managing Pod Networks

When your cluster is configured to use the ovs-multitenant SDN plug-in, you can manage the separate pod overlay networks for projects using the administrator CLI. See the Configuring the SDN section for plug-in configuration steps, if necessary.

Joining Project Networks

To join projects to an existing project network:

$ oadm pod-network join-projects --to=<project1> <project2> <project3>

In the above example, all the pods and services in <project2> and <project3> can now access any pods and services in <project1> and vice versa. Services can be accessed either by IP or fully-qualified DNS name (<service>.<pod_namespace>.svc.cluster.local). For example, to access a service named db in a project myproject, use db.myproject.svc.cluster.local.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

Isolating Project Networks

To isolate the project network in the cluster and vice versa, run:

$ oadm pod-network isolate-projects <project1> <project2>

In the above example, all of the pods and services in <project1> and <project2> can not access any pods and services from other non-global projects in the cluster and vice versa.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

Making Project Networks Global

To allow projects to access all pods and services in the cluster and vice versa:

$ oadm pod-network make-projects-global <project1> <project2>

In the above example, all the pods and services in <project1> and <project2> can now access any pods and services in the cluster and vice versa.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

Disabling Host Name Collision Prevention For Ingress Objects

In OpenShift Origin, host name collision prevention for routes and ingress objects is enabled by default. This means that the host name in a route or ingress object can only be set on creation and not edited afterwards. Disabling host name collision prevention lets you edit a host name for ingress objects after creation. However, because OpenShift Origin uses the object creation timestamp to determine the oldest route or ingress object for a given host name, the route or ingress object can hijack a host name with a newer route. This can happen if an older route changes its host name, or if an ingress object is introduced.

This is relevant to OpenShift Origin installations that depend upon Kubernetes behavior, including allowing the host names in ingress objects be edited.

  1. Add the following to the master.yaml file:

    admissionConfig:
      pluginConfig:
        openshift.io/IngressAdmission:
          configuration:
            apiVersion: v1
            allowHostnameChanges: true
            kind: IngressAdmissionConfig
          location: ""
  2. Restart the master service for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

Controlling Egress Traffic

As a cluster administrator you can allocate a number of static IP addresses to a specific node at the host level. If an application developer needs a dedicated IP address for their application service, they can request one during the process they use to ask for firewall access. They can then deploy an egress router from the developer’s project, using a nodeSelector in the deployment configuration to ensure that the pod lands on the host with the pre-allocated static IP address.

The egress pod’s deployment declares one of the source IPs, the destination IP of the protected service, and a gateway IP to reach the destination. After the pod is deployed, you can create a service to access the egress router pod, then add that source IP to the corporate firewall. The developer then has access information to the egress router service that was created in their project, for example, service.project.cluster.domainname.com.

When the developer needs to access the external, firewalled service, they can call out to the egress router pod’s service (service.project.cluster.domainname.com) in their application (for example, the JDBC connection information) rather than the actual protected service URL.

As an OpenShift Origin cluster administrator, you can control egress traffic in three ways:

Firewall

Using an egress firewall allows you to enforce the acceptable outbound traffic policies, so that specific endpoints or IP ranges (subnets) are the only acceptable targets for the dynamic endpoints (pods within OpenShift Origin) to talk to.

Router

Using an egress router allows you to create identifiable services to send traffic to certain destinations, ensuring those external destinations treat traffic as though it were coming from a known source. This helps with security, because it allows you to secure an external database so that only specific pods in a namespace can talk to a service (the egress router), which proxies the traffic to your database.

iptables

In addition to the above OpenShift Origin-internal solutions, it is also possible to create iptables rules that will be applied to outgoing traffic. These rules allow for more possibilities than the egress firewall, but cannot be limited to particular projects.

Using an Egress Firewall to Limit Access to External Resources

As an OpenShift Origin cluster administrator, you can use egress firewall policy to limit the external addresses that some or all pods can access from within the cluster, so that:

  • A pod can only talk to internal hosts, and cannot initiate connections to the public Internet.

    Or,

  • A pod can only talk to the public Internet, and cannot initiate connections to internal hosts (outside the cluster).

    Or,

  • A pod cannot reach specified internal subnets/hosts that it should have no reason to contact.

You can configure projects to have different egress policies. For example, allowing <project A> access to a specified IP range, but denying the same access to <project B>. Or restrict application developers from updating from (Python) pip mirrors, and forcing updates to only come from desired sources.

You must have the ovs-multitenant plug-in enabled in order to limit pod access via egress policy.

Project administrators can neither create EgressNetworkPolicy objects, nor edit the ones you create in their project. There are also several other restrictions on where EgressNetworkPolicy can be created:

  • The default project (and any other project that has been made global via oadm pod-network make-projects-global) cannot have egress policy.

  • If you merge two projects together (via oadm pod-network join-projects), then you cannot use egress policy in any of the joined projects.

  • No project may have more than one egress policy object.

Violating any of these restrictions results in broken egress policy for the project, and may cause all external network traffic to be dropped.

Use the oc command or the REST API to configure egress policy. You can use oc [create|replace|delete] to manipulate EgressNetworkPolicy objects. The api/swagger-spec/oapi-v1.json file has API-level details on how the objects actually work.

To configure egress policy:

  1. Navigate to the project you want to affect.

  2. Create a JSON file with the desired policy details. For example:

    {
        "kind": "EgressNetworkPolicy",
        "apiVersion": "v1",
        "metadata": {
            "name": "default"
        },
        "spec": {
            "egress": [
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "1.2.3.0/24"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "dnsName": "www.foo.com"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Deny",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "0.0.0.0/0"
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    }

    When the example above is added to a project, it allows traffic to IP range 1.2.3.0/24 and domain name www.foo.com, but denies access to all other external IP addresses. Traffic to other pods is not affected because the policy only applies to external traffic.

    The rules in an EgressNetworkPolicy are checked in order, and the first one that matches takes effect. If the three rules in the above example were reversed, then traffic would not be allowed to 1.2.3.0/24 and www.foo.com because the 0.0.0.0/0 rule would be checked first, and it would match and deny all traffic.

    Domain name updates are polled based on the TTL (time to live) value of the domain of the local non-authoritative server, or 30 minutes if the TTL is unable to be fetched. The pod should also resolve the domain from the same local non-authoritative server when necessary, otherwise the IP addresses for the domain perceived by the egress network policy controller and the pod will be different, and the egress network policy may not be enforced as expected. In the above example, suppose www.foo.com resolved to 10.11.12.13 and has a DNS TTL of one minute, but was later changed to 20.21.22.23. OpenShift Origin will then take up to one minute to adapt to these changes.

    The egress firewall always allows pods access to the external interface of the node the pod is on for DNS resolution. If your DNS resolution is not handled by something on the local node, then you will need to add egress firewall rules allowing access to the DNS server’s IP addresses if you are using domain names in your pods. The default installer sets up a local dnsmasq, so if you are using that setup you will not need to add extra rules.

  3. Use the JSON file to create an EgressNetworkPolicy object:

    # oc create -f <policy>.json

Exposing services by creating routes will ignore EgressNetworkPolicy. Egress network policy service endpoint filtering is done at the node kubeproxy. When the router is involved, kubeproxy is bypassed and egress network policy enforcement is not applied. Administrators can prevent this bypass by limiting access to create routes.

Using an Egress Router to Allow External Resources to Recognize Pod Traffic

The OpenShift Origin egress router runs a service that redirects traffic to a specified remote server, using a private source IP address that is not used for anything else. The service allows pods to talk to servers that are set up to only allow access from whitelisted IP addresses.

The egress router is not intended for every outgoing connection. Creating large numbers of egress routers can push the limits of your network hardware. For example, creating an egress router for every project or application could exceed the number of local MAC addresses that the network interface can handle before falling back to filtering MAC addresses in software.

Currently, the egress router is not compatible with Amazon AWS due to AWS not being compatible with macvlan traffic.

Deployment Considerations

The Egress router adds a second IP address and MAC address to the node’s primary network interface. If you are not running OpenShift Origin on bare metal, you may need to configure your hypervisor or cloud provider to allow the additional address.

Red Hat OpenStack Platform

If you are deploying OpenShift Origin on Red Hat OpenStack Platform, you need to whitelist the IP and MAC addresses on your OpenStack environment, otherwise communication will fail:

neutron port-update $neutron_port_uuid \
  --allowed_address_pairs list=true \
  type=dict mac_address=<mac_address>,ip_address=<ip_address>
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, you should set EnableMACAntiSpoofingFilterRules to false.

VMware vSphere

If you are using VMware vSphere, follow VMware’s Securing Virtual Switch Ports and Forged Transmissions guidance.

Egress Router Modes

The egress router can run in two different modes: redirect mode and HTTP proxy mode. Redirect mode works for all services except for HTTP and HTTPS. For HTTP and HTTPS services, use HTTP proxy mode.

Deploying an Egress Router Pod in Redirect Mode

In redirect mode, the egress router sets up iptables rules to redirect traffic from its own IP address to one or more destination IP addresses. Client pods that want to make use of the reserved source IP address must be modified to connect to the egress router rather than connecting directly to the destination IP.

  1. Create a pod configuration using the following:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
      labels:
        name: egress-1
      annotations:
        pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true" (1)
    spec:
      initContainers:
      - name: egress-router
        image: openshift/origin-egress-router
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE (2)
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY (3)
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION (4)
          value: 203.0.113.25
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE (5)
          value: init
      containers:
      - name: egress-router-wait
        image: openshift/origin-pod
      nodeSelector:
        site: springfield-1 (6)
    1 The pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan annotation creates a Macvlan network interface on the primary network interface, and then moves it into the pod’s network name space before starting the egress-router container. Preserve the quotation marks around "true". Omitting them results in errors.
    2 IP address from the physical network that the node is on and is reserved by the cluster administrator for use by this pod.
    3 Same value as the default gateway used by the node.
    4 The external server to direct traffic to. Using this example, connections to the pod are redirected to 203.0.113.25, with a source IP address of 192.168.12.99.
    5 This tells the egress router image that it is being deployed as an "init container". Previous versions of OpenShift Origin (and the egress router image) did not support this mode and had to be run as an ordinary container.
    6 The pod is only deployed to nodes with the label site=springfield-1.
  2. Create the pod using the above definition:

    $ oc create -f <pod_name>.json

    To check to see if the pod has been created:

    oc get pod <pod_name>
  3. Ensure other pods can find the pod’s IP address by creating a service to point to the egress router:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
    spec:
      ports:
      - name: http
        port: 80
      - name: https
        port: 443
      type: ClusterIP
      selector:
        name: egress-1

    Your pods can now connect to this service. Their connections are redirected to the corresponding ports on the external server, using the reserved egress IP address.

The egress router setup is performed by an "init container" created from the openshift/origin-egress-router image, and that container is run privileged so that it can configure the Macvlan interface and set up iptables rules. After it finishes setting up the iptables rules, it exits and the openshift/origin-pod container will run (doing nothing) until the pod is killed.

The environment variables tell the egress-router image what addresses to use; it will configure the Macvlan interface to use EGRESS_SOURCE as its IP address, with EGRESS_GATEWAY as its gateway.

NAT rules are set up so that connections to any TCP or UDP port on the pod’s cluster IP address are redirected to the same port on EGRESS_DESTINATION.

If only some of the nodes in your cluster are capable of claiming the specified source IP address and using the specified gateway, you can specify a nodeName or nodeSelector indicating which nodes are acceptable.

Redirecting to Multiple Destinations

In the previous example, connections to the egress pod (or its corresponding service) on any port are redirected to a single destination IP. You can also configure different destination IPs depending on the port:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: egress-multi
  labels:
    name: egress-multi
  annotations:
    pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true"
spec:
  initContainers:
  - name: egress-router
    image: openshift/origin-egress-router
    securityContext:
      privileged: true
    env:
    - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
      value: 192.168.12.99
    - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
      value: 192.168.12.1
    - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
      value: | (1)
        80   tcp 203.0.113.25
        8080 tcp 203.0.113.26 80
        8443 tcp 203.0.113.26 443
        203.0.113.27
    - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
      value: init
  containers:
  - name: egress-router-wait
    image: openshift/origin-pod
1 This uses the YAML syntax for a multi-line string; see below for details.

Each line of EGRESS_DESTINATION can be one of three types:

  • <port> <protocol> <IP address> - This says that incoming connections to the given <port> should be redirected to the same port on the given <IP address>. <protocol> is either tcp or udp. In the example above, the first line redirects traffic from local port 80 to port 80 on 203.0.113.25.

  • <port> <protocol> <IP address> <remote port> - As above, except that the connection is redirected to a different <remote port> on <IP address>. In the example above, the second and third lines redirect local ports 8080 and 8443 to remote ports 80 and 443 on 203.0.113.26.

  • <fallback IP address> - If the last line of EGRESS_DESTINATION is a single IP address, then any connections on any other port will be redirected to the corresponding port on that IP address (eg, 203.0.113.27 in the example above). If there is no fallback IP address then connections on other ports would simply be rejected.)

Using a ConfigMap to specify EGRESS_DESTINATION

For a large or frequently-changing set of destination mappings, you can use a ConfigMap to externally maintain the list, and have the egress router pod read it from there. This comes with the advantage of project administrators being able to edit the ConfigMap, whereas they may not be able to edit the Pod definition directly, because it contains a privileged container.

  1. Create a file containing the EGRESS_DESTINATION data:

    $ cat my-egress-destination.txt
    # Egress routes for Project "Test", version 3
    
    80   tcp 203.0.113.25
    
    8080 tcp 203.0.113.26 80
    8443 tcp 203.0.113.26 443
    
    # Fallback
    203.0.113.27

    Note that you can put blank lines and comments into this file

  2. Create a ConfigMap object from the file:

    $ oc delete configmap egress-routes --ignore-not-found
    $ oc create configmap egress-routes \
      --from-file=destination=my-egress-destination.txt

    Here egress-routes is the name of the ConfigMap object being created and my-egress-destination.txt is the name of the file the data is being read from.

  3. Create a egress router pod definition as above, but specifying the ConfigMap for EGRESS_DESTINATION in the environment section:

        ...
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
          valueFrom:
            configMapKeyRef:
              name: egress-routes
              key: destination
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
          value: init
        ...

The egress router does not automatically update when the ConfigMap changes. Restart the pod to get updates.

Deploying an Egress Router HTTP Proxy Pod

In HTTP proxy mode, the egress router runs as an HTTP proxy on port 8080. This only works for clients talking to HTTP or HTTPS-based services, but usually requires fewer changes to the client pods to get them to work. Programs can be told to use an HTTP proxy by setting an environment variable.

  1. Create the pod using the following as an example:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: egress-http-proxy
      labels:
        name: egress-http-proxy
      annotations:
        pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true" (1)
    spec:
      initContainers:
      - name: egress-router-setup
        image: openshift/origin-egress-router
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE (2)
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY (3)
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE (4)
          value: http-proxy
      containers:
      - name: egress-router-proxy
        image: openshift/origin-egress-router-http-proxy
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION (5)
          value: |
            !*.example.com
            !192.168.1.0/24
            *
    1 The pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan annotation creates a Macvlan network interface on the primary network interface, then moves it into the pod’s network name space before starting the egress-router container. Preserve the quotation marks around "true". Omitting them results in errors.
    2 An IP address from the physical network that the node itself is on and is reserved by the cluster administrator for use by this pod.
    3 Same value as the default gateway used by the node itself.
    4 This tells the egress router image that it is being deployed as part of an HTTP proxy, and so it should not set up iptables redirecting rules.
    5 A string or YAML multi-line string specifying how to configure the proxy. Note that this is specified as an environment variable in the HTTP proxy container, not with the other environment variables in the init container.

    You can specify any of the following for the EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION value. You can also use *, meaning "allow connections to all remote destinations". Each line in the configuration specifies one group of connections to allow or deny:

    • An IP address (eg, 192.168.1.1) allows connections to that IP address.

    • A CIDR range (eg, 192.168.1.0/24) allows connections to that CIDR range.

    • A host name (eg, www.example.com) allows proxying to that host.

    • A domain name preceded by *. (eg, *.example.com) allows proxying to that domain and all of its subdomains.

    • A ! followed by any of the above denies connections rather than allowing them

    • If the last line is *, then anything that hasn’t been denied will be allowed. Otherwise, anything that hasn’t been allowed will be denied.

  2. Ensure other pods can find the pod’s IP address by creating a service to point to the egress router:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
    spec:
      ports:
      - name: http-proxy
        port: 8080 (1)
      type: ClusterIP
      selector:
        name: egress-1
    1 Ensure the http port is always set to 8080.
  3. Configure the client pod (not the egress proxy pod) to use the HTTP proxy by setting the http_proxy or https_proxy variables:

        ...
        env:
        - name: http_proxy
          value: http://egress-1:8080/ (1)
        - name: https_proxy
          value: http://egress-1:8080/
        ...
    1 The service created in step 2.

    Using the http_proxy and https_proxy environment variables is not necessary for all setups. If the above does not create a working setup, then consult the documentation for the tool or software you are running in the pod.

You can also specify the EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION using a ConfigMap, similarly to the redirecting egress router example above.

Enabling Failover for Egress Router Pods

Using a replication controller, you can ensure that there is always one copy of the egress router pod in order to prevent downtime.

  1. Create a replication controller configuration file using the following:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ReplicationController
    metadata:
      name: egress-demo-controller
    spec:
      replicas: 1 (1)
      selector:
        name: egress-demo
      template:
        metadata:
          name: egress-demo
          labels:
            name: egress-demo
          annotations:
            pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true"
        spec:
          initContainers:
          - name: egress-demo-init
            image: openshift/origin-egress-router
            env:
            - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
              value: 192.168.12.99
            - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
              value: 192.168.12.1
            - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
              value: 203.0.113.25
            - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
              value: init
            securityContext:
              privileged: true
          containers:
          - name: egress-demo-wait
            image: openshift/origin-pod
          nodeSelector:
            site: springfield-1
    1 Ensure replicas is set to 1, because only one pod can be using a given EGRESS_SOURCE value at any time. This means that only a single copy of the router will be running, on a node with the label site=springfield-1.
  2. Create the pod using the definition:

    $ oc create -f <replication_controller>.json
  3. To verify, check to see if the replication controller pod has been created:

    oc describe rc <replication_controller>

Using iptables Rules to Limit Access to External Resources

Some cluster administrators may want to perform actions on outgoing traffic that do not fit within the model of EgressNetworkPolicy or the egress router. In some cases, this can be done by creating iptables rules directly.

For example, you could create rules that log traffic to particular destinations, or to prevent more than a certain number of outgoing connections per second.

OpenShift Origin does not provide a way to add custom iptables rules automatically, but it does provide a place where such rules can be added manually by the administrator. Each node, on startup, will create an empty chain called OPENSHIFT-ADMIN-OUTPUT-RULES in the filter table (assuming that the chain does not already exist). Any rules added to that chain by an administrator will be applied to all traffic going from a pod to a destination outside the cluster (and not to any other traffic).

There are a few things to watch out for when using this functionality:

  1. It is up to you to ensure that rules get created on each node; OpenShift Origin does not provide any way to make that happen automatically.

  2. The rules are not applied to traffic that exits the cluster via an egress router, and they run after EgressNetworkPolicy rules are applied (and so will not see traffic that is denied by an EgressNetworkPolicy).

  3. The handling of connections from pods to nodes or pods to the master is complicated, because nodes have both "external" IP addresses and "internal" SDN IP addresses. Thus, some pod-to-node/master traffic may pass through this chain, but other pod-to-node/master traffic may bypass it.

Enabling Multicast

At this time, multicast is best used for low bandwidth coordination or service discovery and not a high-bandwidth solution.

Multicast traffic between OpenShift Origin pods is disabled by default. You can enable Multicast on a per-project basis by setting an annotation on the project’s corresponding netnamespace object:

# oc annotate netnamespace <namespace> \
    netnamespace.network.openshift.io/multicast-enabled=true

Disable multicast by removing the annotation:

# oc annotate netnamespace <namespace> \
    netnamespace.network.openshift.io/multicast-enabled-

If you have joined networks together, you will need to enable Multicast in each projects' netnamespace in order for it to take effect in any of the projects. To enable Multicast in the default project, you must also enable it in all other projects that have been made global.

Multicast global projects are not "global", but instead communicate with only other global projects via Multicast, not with all projects in the cluster, as is the case with unicast.

Enabling NetworkPolicy

Enabling the Kubernetes NetworkPolicy is a Technology Preview feature only.

Kubernetes NetworkPolicy is not currently fully supported by OpenShift Origin, and the ovs-subnet and ovs-multitenant plug-ins ignore NetworkPolicy objects. However, a Technology Preview of NetworkPolicy support is available by using the ovs-networkpolicy plug-in.

In a cluster configured to use the ovs-networkpolicy plug-in, network isolation is controlled entirely by NetworkPolicy objects. In particular, by default, all projects are able to access pods in all other projects. To isolate a project, opt in to isolation by configuring the Namespace object, then create a NetworkPolicy object to indicate the allowed incoming connections.

  1. Configure the pod network in the master configuration file at /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml:

    networkConfig:
     ...
      networkPluginName: "redhat/openshift-ovs-networkpolicy" (1)
     ...
    1 Set to redhat/openshift-ovs-networkpolicy for the ovs-networkpolicy plug-in
  2. Configure the pod network policy on each node configuration file at /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml:

    networkConfig:
      ...
      networkPluginName: "redhat/openshift-ovs-networkpolicy" (1)
    1 Set to redhat/openshift-ovs-networkpolicy for the ovs-networkpolicy plug-in
  3. Project administrators can create and delete NetworkPolicy objects within their own project. Create the NetworkPolicy objects:

    kind: NetworkPolicy
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: allow-http-and-https
    spec:
      podSelector:
      ingress:
      - ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 443